A Jewel in the Crown of the Cornish Mining World Heritage Site...

The ancient Cornish tin mine that just about everyone is talking about

Welcome to Poldark Tin Mine, Trenere Wolas Gardyn & the Cornish Heritage Collection.

CHILL OUT WITH US...... On a hot day its deliciously COOL to delve underground into Wheal Roots 18th century tin mine workings at the Poldark Mine - 11 degrees [52 fahrenheit] underground ...and thats constant all year round so in Winter its usually warmer than on the surface - its also a cool thing to do and our educational guided mine tour is definitely the coolest of all.


From Saturday 27th October, Saturday November 3rd and each Saturday in November and December to & including Saturday 22nd December - then closed until January 2019

There are only Two mine tours on Winter Saturdays -

11.00am MAIN MINE EXPLORER TOUR A - 65 minutes & three levels - reservation recommended


Booking office open Winter Saturdays only from 10.30 am to 1.30 pm

Museum, Gardens and car park gates open from 10.30am on the Saturdays the mine and museum is open - The Grounds, Scheduled Ancient Monument, Museum & Car Park will close around the time of the last tour with final admission 1 hour earlier.

Car parking is free in 2018 - sorry no dogs anywhere but day kennels are available nearby - smoking is not allowed anywhere in our grounds gardens or car park or outside our gates - please arrive at least 15 minutes before the main tour time and at least 60 minutes before the deep mine tour.

REFRESHMENTS - SLICE OF CORNWALL is just 300 yards from the mine at The Homestead Woodland Garden Crelly, Trenear, Wendron, TR13 0EU and open from 10am to 4 pm.

The tea room at Poldark Mine will be closed in Winter but confectionery & cold drinks will be available. Picnics can be taken on the bandstand in our waterside gardens if there is fair weather.

Wheal Roots Workings at The Poldark Mine is the only complete tin mine in Cornwall open for underground guided tours and is generally regarded as one of the most historic locations in the annals of Cornish Mining History. It has been open for 45 years. The mine is on several levels and the guided tours by experienced Cornishmen receive many accolades for their unvarnished presentation. The real atmosphere in the Wheal Roots 18th century mine workings of The Poldark Mine is tangible, leaving a profound memory on the explorers who venture below. The mine tours encompass the 18th century mine workings of Wheal Roots which prospered during the 1700s, but can boast far earlier origins in peripheral adits and other areas of the mine that are inaccessible to visitors.

The little hamlet of Trenear is part of the village and district of Wendron near Helston. Trenear is located on the B3297 Helston to Redruth road just under 4 miles from Helston on the edge of the beautiful Lizard Peninsula. The mine is on Porkellis lane in Lower Trenear [Trenere Wolas] set below a granite escarpment in five acres of waterside country style gardens in a beautiful wooded glen on the River Cober valley floor and beside Porkellis Moor a Site of Special Scientific interest due to its biodiversity.

The workings lie below several fields that form private farmland in the village. The grounds are known as the Trenere Wolas Gardyn being the name of the location in the 1400s and before. The spelling of Gardyn is taken from middle English which was in use from circa 1100 to 1500. Wolas means lower in Cornish.

The tiny Poldark Demesne is about 230 feet above sea level in a rural farming community just 6 miles from the sea at Mounts Bay on the English Channel to the south and around 8 miles from the Atlantic Coast to the west.

Following closure in September 2013 and then bankruptcy, the well-known mine re-opened in June 2014 under new ownership with a firm policy of Cultural Heritage Management supported by volunteers and small staff team.

Wheal Roots, Hwel Roots or Huel Roots, is a tin mine known as The Poldark Mine and has a special place in the story of Cornish tin mining. Its an ancient location that is the veritable cradle of tinning in Cornwall. The mine is also a Regionally Important Geological & Geomorphological Site [RIGS] No K31 The old mine workings representing the roots of a lode. This cannot be seen anywhere else. The main stope shaft is believed to be the location of a Carbona Mass and its upper level was once worked as a Goffen Shaft in ancient times - again most unusual.

The mine & its grounds are part of the UNESCO Cornish & Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Inscription - Area 4.

A unique 4000 year old Bronze-Age Scheduled Ancient Monument - the Trenear Mortar Outcrop - sits in the riverside grounds where alluvial tin ore was processed by ancient Britons.

The Trenear Mortar Outcrop is formed from a living granite outcrop some 290 million years old. The granite here is the oldest in Cornwall being some 20 million years earlier than the remainder and is part of the Carnmenellis Pluton. This Monument Stone serves to confirm the great antiquity and national importance of the location. We call this our TIN HENGE.

The Cornish Heritage Collection was started by Peter Young in 1963 and first opened its doors to the public on June 1st 1971. It was one of the very first Industrial Heritage Museums and is the interpretation centre for the Wendron Mining District which once had over 60 mines with some 9000 people and workers at its peak. The area produced great quantities of tin, copper and other minerals. Much tin was processed at the Poldark Mine of today at the Tin Stamping Mills & tin dressing floors operated by water wheels from the 13th century until the 1870s. There was also a blowing house here, a grist mill and fish ponds too. Copper ore was handled here from Wendron Consols Mine which from 1850 was under the same ownership. Along with another mine, all three mines were linked in the workings underground. The 13th century water courses remain as does the original water wheel pit which contains a more modern 1904 wheel from Treamble Iron & Fullers Earth Mine.

Visitors travel from all corners of the globe to trace the footsteps of their ancestors and to explore the labyrinth of four levels, caverns, adits, stopes, passageways and shafts that make up this 18th century mine since it was first opened to the public in 1976.

The mine has been seen by millions all over the world due to the BBC Poldark Drama that was filmed here twice during the 1970s and in the current BBC series of Poldark. Other BBC productions have also been filmed here, such as Penmarric, BBC Childrens programmes, BBC TVs FLOG IT, and sequences in a number of documentaries.

Camborne School of Mines and the mine in modern times.

CAMBORNE SCHOOL OF MINES at POLDARK MINE - Although Wheal Roots ceased mining over 200 years ago it continues to have a vital and active role in training mining students from all over the world for multidisciplinary mining qualifications. Cornwall continues to have a significant effect on mining throughout the world. We at the mine are pleased to be a field study location for CSM which is part of Exeter University as it furthers our educational aims and activities.

The world renowned Camborne School of Mines founded in 1888 is part of Exeter University and Poldark Mine is used by the University as a field study location for their students & postgraduates who are based at their Penryn Campus near Falmouth just 8 miles away from us.

Practical surveying using both state of the art Global Positioning System [GPS] and traditional mechanical theodiltes, applied geology, training & induction courses, together with other underground training work is carried out by postgraduates and students in the mine, usually but not exclusively outside public opening times. You may note the modern survey tags on the passageway walls and roofs throughout the workings. GPS [originally Navstar GPS] commenced in the 1970s, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. The 24 or more GPS satellites circle the Earth at an altitude of about 20,000 km (12,427 miles) and complete two full orbits every day. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS signals.

GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The US government makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

There are several GPS permanent markers on the surface here at Poldark Mine - see if you can spot them. The equipment used is very expensive and students get several days practical training here and at the university.

The School of Mines website explains - Based at the University’s £100 million Penryn Campus near Falmouth, the Camborne School of Mines (CSM) has an international reputation for research and teaching related to the understanding and management of the Earths natural processes, resources and the environment. We are a unique multidisciplinary department offering a range of specialised programmes, drawing upon our research expertise in mining and minerals engineering, applied geology and mineralogy, surveying and renewable energy. We offer postgraduates an outstanding research environment with state-of-the-art analytical facilities and laboratories and have excellent rates of graduate employment.


Poldark Mine has a long association with students from the CSM. Since the mine was first opened to the public 45 years ago many CSM students have worked here as volunteers and mine guides. This association has continued down the years with several former students who regularly assist and support in a variety of ways. For a number of years, our regular monthly inspections are carried out by Henderson Mines Research whose principal qualified from the CSM many years ago and who has a long association with the mine since the very early days.

The mine workings were filled with mud and rubble and much of this was cleared by volunteers many of whom were students at CSM. More recently a number of modern fire doors, windows and other items including our ticket office windows, were reclaimed from the former Camborne School of Mine premises in Pool which closed a few years ago when the campus moved to Penryn.

The mine has a number of unique features such as the Shammeling Shaft and distinctive veins of blue peach ore-bearing granite. Recently one of the professors from the Camborne School of Mines discovered that the main stope is the location of a relatively rare Carbona Mass.

Sir Neil Cossons OBE FSA FMA, the former chairman of English Heritage and current President of the Association of Independent Museums (AIM), is regarded as the leading authority on industrial heritage in Britain. He declared that Poldark Mine was One of the two most atmospheric mine tours in Europe. The other mine being the vast 14th century former Royal Salt Mine near Krakow in Poland which has been open as a state museum for many years.

Wheal Roots at Poldark Mine has been open to the public for 45 years, an incredible record that no other UK mine can equal. Literally millions of visitors have been here during those years and many millions more have seen the mine in a variety of BBC television programmes and documentaries.

Most recently and twice during the 1970s the mine has been the location for underground sequences in the two BBC Television series of Poldark! People are continuing to come here from all over the world to have a peek at this remarkable and historic mine that is described as The Jewel in the Crown of the World Heritage site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation [UNESCO] World Heritage Team.

From the Bronze Age to Today.....

TIME LINE ... Poldark Mine, Trenere Wolas Gardyn, The Trenear Mortar Stone, The Cornish Heritage Collection & The Methodist Connexion Archive...

Bringing the past to life for everyone.

Wheal Roots Tin Mine workings & levels at The Poldark Mine is the only complete tin mine in Cornwall open for underground guided tours and is generally regarded as one of the most historic locations in the annals of Cornish Mining History.

Parts of the mine have been attributed to the medieval period and were hand worked using primitive tools well before the time of explosives making it one of the oldest in the County.

The mine has remained open to the public since 1974 as all other mines in Cornwall closed down one by one. Geevor closed in 1989, Wheal Jane in 1992, Wheal Pendarves, Mount Wellington, finally South Crofty was the very last to go in 1998. Large items and smaller objects from these and other other closed mines are on display in the Cornish Heritage Collection.

The Mine, at Trenear in Wendron, is centrally located in West Cornwall a few miles from the town of Helston on the edge of the Lizard Peninsula AONB, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Peaceful woodland and hilly meadows surround the riverside car park and country gardens in the lower part of a beautiful narrow glen on the River Cober valley. The riverside demesne and hamlet of Trenear is bounded by pastoral hills in a rural area of Cornwall just 6 miles from the rugged Cornish coastline of the English Channel to the south and 8 miles from the craggy Atlantic coast to the west.

The world famous mine & Cornish Heritage Collection museum re-opened in June 2014 under new ownership that is concentrating on the heritage of the ancient place. Part of the Cornish & West Devon Mining Landscape UNESCO World Heritage Inscription, Poldark Mine (Hwel Roots) is also the location of a Bronze-Age Scheduled Ancient Monument and has a unique & special place in the story of tin working.

Regarded by many as the veritable cradle of tinning, Trenere Wolas it is the earliest recorded place in the World where mechanical waterwheel-driven tin stamps were first used. The watercourses were created towards the end of the 13th century by Cistercian Monks.

Visitors have been coming from all over the globe to explore the labyrinth of several levels, caverns, adits, stopes, passageways and shafts that make up this 18th century mine since it was first opened to the public in 1974 and reached world fame due to the original BBC TV filming of Poldark in the 1970s at the mine and in the historic grounds.

Today, the mine gardens have a Cornish country-garden homely style and many of the old wooden mine buildings are deliberately kept in a ramshackle mining condition, the phrase Mineshackle was recently coined by our custodian, as most of the thousands of old Cornish mines usually appeared to be very work-worn and dilapidated.

The Cornish Heritage Collection is a museum that is largely housed in an old industrial 1940s former dairy warehouse building. It is filled with an eclectic collection that encompasses a wide spectrum of Cornish life, especially Cornish Methodism, explosives & safety fuses (a Cornish invention by a Methodist who is buried nearby), safety lamps (a Cornish invention of 1815), ancient model machinery from the plunger water pressure pump of Cornishman Richard Trevithick to a large scale-model beam engine made in 1850 by Boulton & Watt.

Mining is represented by many items, rock drills & a wide variety other mining tools and equipment. There are three medieval [or earlier] granite mortar stones in the collection, two are in the museum and the other in the mine briefing room. They are all well used and could be as much as 1500 years old. Ancient winding engines, an 1846 Cornish Holman Bros mine boiler and other interesting machinery can be seen.

The end uses of tin & copper are featured, some of which are rather unexpected - from bronze-age tools & weaponry, to vintage & modern day communications equipment .... from the transatlantic telegraph cable to old telephones, telegraph equipment, teleprinters, telephone exchanges, the mobile cellphone and the PCs of today ... copper kettles, jugs, platters, teapots & tea urns .... all sorts of household goods & tin-plated biscuit & sweet tins and a plethora of other items... Tankards, jugs, teapots, plates and other items of tableware fashioned from pewter (92% tin) are numerous - the tin from this mine in the 1700s was mainly used for this purpose and shipped to the pewter workers of Sheffield.

Other ancient uses of tin include glass, enamels and ceramic glazes. Since at least the 11th century glass windows & lanterns were made of small glass panes held together with strips of channeled lead and correctly known as Came Glasswork. Tin was & continues to be used to solder the lead together. Examples of leaded came glass work, together with an ancient leaded lantern can be can be seen in the museum & the beautifully made modern glass panels above the tearoom counter were hand made in Bath by an artisan in the 1990s.

There is also an extensive mineral specimen collection on display. The largest specimen of fools Gold (iron pyrite) ever found in Cornwall is massive and sits in its own cabinet, it weighs in at an impressive three hundredweight. It came from the long flooded Wheal Jane Mine just 12 miles from the museum.

Artefacts which encompass a range of general trades from shoe repairs to railways are included. Many miners daughters if not working at a mine as a bal maiden, were often in service as housemaids, charladies & skivvies {maids of all work}, they are not overlooked as there is a range of old stoneware jars & glass bottles, heavy sad irons used by housemaids and tailors that can be touched ..... cast iron sad irons contain some tin too! Cast Iron is in fact an alloy of a variety of metals that can include tin, copper and other metals.

The Wendron Wheelwrights shop of the late Joseph {Jo} Faull (d 1971?) and Thomas Faull, his father, who died in 1934 can be seen in the grounds. Many tools of the trade are on display. The record book of work done in 1928 has been preserved and meticulous details of repair and renewal work carried out on the water wheel here, also up at Porkellis Moor where the leat diverts waters from the Cober River. New launders and 60 wheel buckets were made by Jo and his father in March and April 1928. The work took some months and the record runs to several pages.

Mining and Cornish Methodism are very closely connected. The chapel room in the gardens by the mine entrance is arranged as a place for quiet contemplation, it contains many items from several closed Methodist Chapels including the old oak doors & 1869 made hallway window from Penmarth Chapel, close to the mine, which remains open for services and renewed its front doors recently.

The rooms inner area has original furniture with other Georgian era contents of the 1805 Flushing Methodist Sunday School which is near Falmouth. The carved gothic style pitch pine communion table and chairs are from Falmouth Pikes Hill Chapel and date from 1886 - the chapel became unsafe and was demolished in 1979, the table and chairs went to Flushing Methodist and were donated to the museum by their trustees in 2016 along with the organ and pulpit, together with many other objects, when that chapel closed.

In addition an extensive private collection of objects from closed chapels saved by Mr Graham Jackett a retired Cunard Engineer, was presented to the museum. Many early chapel oil lamps including a heavy brass lectern he made from discarded engine parts from Cunard ships, are on display. All are now part of the Methodist Connexion Archive at the Cornish Heritage Collection.

The cabinet of curiosities contains a wide range of everyday items not necessarily directly related to mining... & includes a 14,000+ year old woolly mammoth molar found on a tin mining location near St Day, a small piece of the Berlin Wall.... and a Georgian Mouse Trap! .. there is something of interest for all.

From the Bronze Age to Today.....

2000 - 1600 BC

The Trenear Mortar Granite Outcrop is a Bronze-Age Scheduled Ancient Monument of National importance [No. 1021409] and is located within the grounds of Poldark Mine. The northern flood plain of the River Cober, which flows for a quarter of a mile through part of the grounds, is where the mortar outcrop sits. The stone is believed to have been used during the latter half of the prehistoric period (approximately 2000 BC to 43 AD) to grind alluvial tin ore (cassiterite Sn02)to fine sand before smelting. The heavier tin crystals were panned out with water [rather like gold panning] and then smelted in primitive furnaces using charcoal.

1660 BC - 1324 AD No detailed records have been found for this period but there are no less than three quite large well-used granite mortar stones on display from medieval times - believed to date from the 5th to 13th century, they were found in the grounds during early excavations and were undoubtedly used to pulverise alluvial tin ore.

1284 .... 15th of September The monks at the Cistercian Abbey of St Mary at Rewley in Oxford were given the advowson of St Wendron church & its chapels confirmed by way of a Royal Charter or Inspeximus of that date by Edmund Earl of Cornwall with its Great Tithes and glebe lands - that was over 730 years ago. This is recorded in the village church close to the mine. Edmund was the son of Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall and grandson of King John. Before this St Wendrona Church had belonged to his Manor of Helston which included the whole parish. The ancient Wendron village church is on a hill overlooking the mine at Trenere Wolas, (Lower Trenere} the Trenear of today. Its tower can be clearly seen from the tea garden & lawns which were tin dressing floors from circa 1300 to 1871. The ancient bells of the church ring out for all to hear. A record of tithes relating to the use of the waterwheels exists in Wendron parish records.

1354 .... Edward the Black Prince [1330 - 1376] added the advowson of lands at Stithians and its church to the monks at Rewley Abbey and this was approved by the bishop in 1354, almost 700 years ago.

1300 - 1400 .... The waterways in the valley that flow through the grounds had been created by the early to mid 1400s or perhaps during the late 1200s, most probably by the Cistercian Monks themselves. The waterways remain to this day, the tail race ponds and leats now form part of our pleasant gardens.

The Cistercian Monks certainly controlled and may well have operated the tin stamps & blowing house in the 1300s, into the early 1400s - the Cistercians from the mother Abbey* in France were renowned metal workers and hydraulic experts from early times. An ancient system of waterways and water wheels exists at a Cistercian Abbey in Spain.

*Cîteaux Abbey is the mother abbey and was founded on Saint Benedicts Day, 21 March 1098. The abbey is at Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon, France. Today it belongs to the Trappists, or Cistercians of the Strict Observance

Wikipedia tells us:

The Cistercian order was quite innovative in developing techniques of hydraulic engineering for monasteries established in remote valleys. In Spain, one of the earliest surviving Cistercian houses, the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda in Aragon, is a good example of such early hydraulic engineering, using a large waterwheel for power and an elaborate water circulation system for central heating.

Much of this practicality in Cistercian architecture, and indeed in the construction itself, was made possible by the orders own technological inventiveness. The Cistercians are known to have been skilled metallurgists, and as the historian Alain Erlande-Brandenburg writes: The quality of Cistercian architecture from the 1120s onwards is related directly to the Orders technological inventiveness.

They placed importance on metal, both the extraction of the ore and its subsequent processing. At the abbey of Fontenay the forge is not outside, as one might expect, but inside the monastic enclosure: metalworking was thus part of the activity of the monks and not of the lay brothers.

1493 ....Stampyng mylls de Trenere Wolas.. In 1493 a written renewal of a lease for the mill, waterwheels and leats was granted to a private individual by the Duchy of Cornwall. This man was John Trerys a freeman, the title to the lands having changed. The simply detailed lease is contained in the Royal Assession Records of the Dukedom at Buckingham Gate in London. The rent was 3s 4d per annum and included a water course, drainage channel,a fish trap, and a separate lease for a grain mill in same building sharing the water. Trenear Stamping Mill is thus the earliest recorded water-powered tin stamps in the world. The Rewley Abbey records for the previous 200 years were lost at the time of the dissolution in 1539.

1500 ... The mill equipment appears to have been renewed according to the historian the late Dr Hamilton Jenkin. One of his much prized books Wendron Tin, was published by Wendron Forge sponsored by Peter Young the founder of the museum.

1536 - 1539 .... King Henry VIII was the patron of Rewley Abbey & its Studium but even it too was dissolved in 1539. The last abbot was Abbot Nicholaus Austen, early in 1536 he tried unsuccessfully to buy off the dissolution by offering £100 to Thomas Cromwell in the hope of keeping it or making it a college but he was pensioned off with £22 and wisely made an immediate move to study at Trinity Hall in Cambridge - so was clearly respected. [Other abbots were not as fortunate and of those who protested, most were horrifically executed as traitors or treated very badly] Little of St Marys Abbey exists today except for a wall and gateway close to Oxford railway station. The road is still called Rewley Road.

1649s .... Henry Leonard was renting the stamping mill for 3s 4d a year, a corn mill and a blowing house, all at Trenere Wolas - the Trenear of today. During the Commonwealth a survey was undertaken and at that time there were many workers here at Trenear working the waterwheels and tin dressing operations. The rent was still only 3s 4d per annum. This use continued until the the 1870s

1715(?) to 1800 (?) Huel Roots mine was in production operated by a horse whim. John Wesley preached in Wendron and visited Porkellis to preach too. He would have ridden on horseback past the mine & water operated tin stamps here, our Cornish dry stone Hedge is around 800 years old and borders the laneway to this day.

1854 ... In 1854, exactly 500 years after being given by the Black Prince to the Cistercian monks at Oxford, a lease of lands that included the waterways, leat, waterwheels and the tin dressing grounds, was granted by the successor in title to the dissolved abbey lands - a Mr Thomas Hocker of Stithians to a Mr Frederick Hill, a solicitor from Helston, who also owned the two adjoining Wendron Consols mines [one past the upper end of our present day car park, and the other on the other side of the B3297 road to Redruth above the Wendron or Trenear smithy], the rent agreed was £50 a year. Mr Hocker died 6 months later and is buried at Stithians where his monument can be seen close to the church door. The lease relates in part to the four or five acres that are the gardens and car park of today. Mr Hill describes the condition of the water wheels at that time as only fit for a Christmas fire!.

1859 ... The Wendron Consols Festival .... a gathering of over 700 people on a Wendron Festival in the grounds of the three mines was recorded in detail in the local newspaper. The Wendron Consols Festival was a popular annual event, according to this remarkable report in the West Briton newspaper in September 1859 - 159 years ago -

From the church a procession was formed, comprising the agents and persons employed in the mine, with their families and, preceded by the Porkellis Band, they marched to the Account House, where tables were laid and nearly 700 persons sat down. A happier party can scarcely be imagined – there sat the miner with his goodly wife and healthy children – the fine muscular sumpman – the intelligent tributor, and the bold tut worker, with many a fair bal maiden and those who constitute the stamps pare – all looked grateful and pleased, and even the babe seemed to enjoy the festival by crowing in its mother’s arms. After partaking of excellent cake and tea, the grace and doxology were sung, and the band played for some time.

The festival concluded with the Flora Dance, when a party comprising many of the youth and beauty of Wendron and Helston danced around the mine. A bonfire and tar barrels lit up the barren moor, and thus terminated a day which afforded great delight to the interested assembly. Refreshments were prepared in the Account House for the wives and daughters of the adventurers and their families.

1864 ... In 1864, the two Wendron Consols mines sold 117 tons of black tin for just over £7,000. It had a workforce of 184 men, 61 women and 50 boys. All the women and younger children were employed above ground in dressing & sorting the tin ores in what are the mine gardens of today

1871 - Tin prices had fallen and the two Wendron Consols mines closed as did the tin dressing floors, the tin stamps mill and the blowing house.

1885 ... In 1885 the waterwheels and Tin stamps were taken over by the Trenear Dairy Company who used the water wheel and its waterways until 1972, the mill was extended on one side and the resulting double-gabled dairy building was dated 1897. Butter and cream were produced, clotted cream and milk processed using the power of the water wheel. Eggs were also packed.

1938 ... The incoming milk record ledger for the year 1938 to September 1939 was found in the attics in 2015 and is now on display. It lists all of the local farmers and has precise details of their daily milk production and the amounts paid per gallon.

1966.... In 1966 Peter Young [the founder of what is the Poldark Mine, Gardens & Museum of today] acquired the freehold of the village forge for £100 and some marshland which is now the lower pond and leat area around the mine entrance. He had already started to collect machinery from many places around the UK and thus created what was to become one of the very first Industrial Heritage Collections in Great Britain, before that term was coined. Peter called it the Cornish Heritage Collection.

1971 ... Peter Young and his wife Jose opened the lower part of the gardens to the public on June 1st 1971 as Wendron Forge, their daughter Carol Young recalled that no one attended on that very first day! Wendron Forge was the trading name of the workshops set up by the Youngs where they employed local craftsmen to make clocks, plaques and a variety of seats and other wooden items. Examples remain here to this day and several of the stainless steel plaques are on display. Profits were used to buy land and in 1975/6 to open the mine with the help of a team of friends and volunteers. The present car park was purchased soon afterwards and included the Bronze-Age Trenear Mortar Stone, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

1972 ..... The Trenear Dairy closed and was sold to a furniture warehouse. Peter tried to buy the Dairy and old mill, but the price was inflated. A couple of years later Peter Young was able to secretly purchase the former Trenear Dairy land and the old mill building through a company he had formed in London. The purchase was at a rather more advantageous price. This enabled the two separate land holdings to be joined together again much as they were before the 1850s.

1972 ... In the winter of 1972-1973 the Greensplat Cornish Beam Engine was moved 30 miles to Trenear and erected here. This ambitious feat was done with the help of volunteers and cost a great deal of money at the time, the move alone costing £8,000 - a great sum of money in 1972. This engine was the very last to have worked in commercial service which to Christmas week 1959 beating all other similar claims by some five years. It had been built by Harvey of Hayle for the Bunny Tin mine circa 1846 and moved in the 1880s to Greensplat.

1973 At Trenear (Wendron Forge) SW 68273157 a blocked Cornish Hull was discovered by Peter Young in the hillside. It had a natural granite entrance and was in the woodland escarpment. 1973 ... Wendron Forge staged a Brass on the Grass concert, which is a phrase Peter Young appears to have coined. Attended by the Mayor of Helston and the Chairman of Cornwall Council with the Band of the Royal Marines and Mousehole Male Voice Choir.

1974 ... The ancient Hwel Roots tin mine [which has very early, probably medieval, workings not seen on the educational tours of today] was accidentally re-discovered by Peter Young in 1973, an access tunnel was driven at a cost of £75,000 [an enormous sum at that time] and with much clearance being done by a team of volunteers, a more substantial section of the 18th century parts of the mine was opened to the public in 1974 as Wheal Roots Mine.

1974 BBC television cameras arrived to film sequences for the new Poldark costume drama which became an instant success. [see below 1975 & 1977] 1975 The mine was re-named Poldark Mine by the author Winston Graham who had become good friends with Peter and Jose Young the founders of the museum. That friendship between the Young family and Winston Graham continued down the years and some of Winston Grahams books were launched at the mine

1976 A rare George V Post Box was installed in an underground chamber on level 1 in the mine by the Helston GPO. This is believed to be the very first GPO mail box installed in a private location, and the first underground mailbox. It dates from the 1910 to 1920s era and is believed to have been at Helston Railway Station. When first installed it was emptied by the local GPO postmen but soon this duty was delegated to the mine guides and the GPO postmen collected the mail each day from the mine office. Its still in use on a daily basis and cards posted underground are marked with a special cancellation that is unique in the UK.

1977 ... POLDARK MINE ..... BBC Television cameras returned for the second time and filmed underground and other sequences in the mine grounds for their long running popular Poldark Costume Drama series in 1977 following the success of the earlier production. Another period costume series called Penmarric used the mine as a location.

1979 ... The Holman Bros Museum Collection in Camborne was given to Peter Young for just £1 and all came to Poldark Mine to create a very special museum. The core of this important collection remains the nucleus of the Museum to this day.

1983 ... a second exit passageway was driven to facilitate an extended circular underground tour around this time. The cost was over £85,000, clearance work continued to be carried out by volunteers.

1983 ... The band of the Royal Marines performed a Brass on the Grass concert at the mine to celebrate the birthday of Peter Youngs brother.

1985 ... The family of a Mr John McLeod leased the sales showroom at Poldark Mine for £21,187 per annum from 11th November.

1989 Peter and Jose Young retired to live in Spain. John McLeod and his brother took over from the Young family. He had been working with them for some years as a tenant operator of the sales showroom and later the bar & restaurant.

John continued to maintain and invest in the mine. He financed the blasting of a further deep inclined passageway to improve the circular tour, this decline is a staircase driven through solid rock deep below the surface is used today to exit from the very deepest parts of the mine [4 Level] open to the public. Volunteers continued to assist with these works. Unfortunately in the recession some 10 years later John ran out of money and the mine & museum went into administration. Thankfully all debts were settled and the entire museum collection was handed over intact to the new owners.

1999 ... The museum & Mine changed hands and sadly a 14 year run down commenced, including an immediate sell-off of machinery & many other items from the collection. This meant that much of the working machinery collected by Peter Young, his friends and volunteers was removed or sold off for personal gain. All working machinery apart from the Cornish beam engine was sold. The museum lost its direction as many regularly came to see the working machinery of bygone years.

2002 ... Winston Grahams very last book and No 12 in the series, Bella Poldark was launched in the mine gardens in 2002 when he was 94 years of age. The BBC and press attended with hundreds of visitors. Sadly he died in the following year.

2006 ... Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape was inscribed by UNESCO as A World Heritage Site, Poldark Mine & Grounds being part of that inscription in the Carnmenellis Pluton, the oldest granite in Cornwall being some 20 million years earlier than all of the other granite in Cornwall. Poldark Mine is designated as the Interpretation centre for the Wendron Mining District and is AREA 4 of the 10 districts. The Wendron Mining District is now a rural sparsely populated area but was once extensively occupied with over 60 mines and 65 tin stream workings. The population was around 9,000 in the peak years before 1800. Many were tin miners, tin dressers, bal maidens and tin streamers together with their families & associated workers. Wendron district had more people than the towns of Camborne & Redruth combined.

2009 ... The Trenear Mortar Outcrop was designated a Scheduled Ancient Monument No 36032. The mortar outcrop at Trenear, 9m north east of Poldark Mine entrance is the only known example of an early hand tin-crushing site in the South West of England. The monument includes a large earth fast slab of granite with at least 17 circular or oval shaped hollows, here argued to have been ore-grinding mortars, worn into its upper face. The location lies within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site, site No. 17. The mortar outcrop is situated on the northern edge of the floodplain associated with the River Cober.

2013 .... Rhys Casenove unveiled a brass tablet to the memory of his mother, Lady McAlpine, better known as Angharad Rees who played Demelza Poldark in the original BBC TV series. Angharad loved this place and was a regular visitor to the mine down the years, and popped in quite close to the end of her life, which had sadly ended rather too soon in 2012. The memorial plaque can be seen during the mine tour.

2013 .... Following 14 years of decline and neglect, apart from one or two brighter moments, the mine & museum closed at the end of September 2013 and went into receivership. Many items were taken away from the museum, the offices were ransacked, historic and other records were pillaged.

2014 ... In May 2014 a heritage orientated individual took over under licence from the Administration. All amusements and other play areas were immediately removed and the mine reverted to an historic underground educational mine tour with a new museum.

June 2014, following costly underground repairs the mine and museum reopened under new direction with a firm Cultural Heritage Management policy following the bankruptcy. Many former guides, workers and volunteers returned to the fold as the restoration commenced with some vigour.

In June 2014 Bristol based Mammoth Films on behalf of BBC Television filmed the underground sequences of the new series of Poldark in the mine. The sale of the mine to the new philanthropic owner completed in October 2014. This triggered a programme of repairs to be carried out. Changes were made to immediately remove the remains of all of the peripheral non-mining amusements.

Restoration of the gardens commenced in earnest and soon no less than 88 leylandii trees were felled and other improvements followed. The Falmouth Docks steam railway engine that had been ignominiously sold off on EBay was recovered and eventually returned to the museum in October with the generous assistance of the trustees of the Chasewater Railway in Staffordshire. It awaits restoration today.

In early June Peter Young was very pleased to learn of the pending return of the steam locomotive when he telephoned the museum from his home in Spain to have a long informative discussion with the new custodian.

2014 .... July 1, the founder of the museum, discoverer of the mine and visionary entrepreneur, former Royal Marine Peter Brigham Young, died peacefully in Spain. In 2015 A casket containing some of his ashes were brought by his daughter Carol to be placed in the mine.

2015 ... Restoration of the mine continued with new powerful electric pumps, proper rising mains were installed, and a host of other improvements and infrastructure upgrades were carried out by contractors and volunteers. Contractors also generously gave some of their time free of charge. Some new lighting was fitted using LED technology and this was the start of major improvement to the electrical services. A number of sheds filled with artefacts and junk were cleared and many historic artefacts, mine drills, scale models and other mining items found their way back into the public museum areas.

A cabinet of Curiosities was created from the remaining scattered collection of the late Peter England. He had been curator of the museum during the Young family ownership and had amassed his collection in the 1950s in forays to the Portobello Antiques Market in London during his time as a lecturer at the Paddington Technical College. More curios and historic items were added by the new custodian from his collection. We continue to purchase artefacts to add to the collections.

A new refreshment counter was created in the new Museum building, Switzers Buttery. The former open verandah was enclosed with a new disabled ramp and a new room for teas overlooking the gardens was created using reclaimed materials from other parts of the grounds.

A bandstand was built in the garden toward the end of the summer of 2015 and in September was used for the first Brass on the Grass concert for over 14 years. The following year 2016 saw no less than 8 brass band concerts, a wedding and two well attended plays being performed in the gardens. The bandstand is one of the three places licenced for weddings & civil partnerships. Sunday afternoon band concerts (12pm -2pm ) have been regular events ever since.

2016 ... A new special section in the museum was created .... The Methodist Connexion Archive .... to tell the story of the profound influence that the ministry of John & Charles Wesley had on the lives of the Cornish miner and other Cornish folk in the 1700s. There were Wesleyan chapels all over Cornwall. Since 2016 the collection has been expanded to include no less than five full sized church pipe organs, one built in Truro as a WW1 memorial to the fallen of the Treverva area. Three are in storage and two are on display, one is is working order and the second is being restored.

There are lots of monogrammed china items from various local and other places. The entire contents of the 1805 Georgian Sunday School from Flushing on the Fal River are on display. The major contents of the 1816 Flushing Methodist Church are now in our care due to the trustees wishing to see the contents on display and preserved for future generations.

The 1880 communion table and chairs from Falmouth Pikes Hill Methodist Chapel are in the museum. The chapel was demolished long ago. There is inter alia an 1850s era octagonal baptismal font carved in dark Cornish Serpentine that was used at Falmouth until 2016. The charismatic Billy Bray was a tin miner-preacher in the early 1800s - he was virtually a pauper but nonetheless raised funds to build no less than three Bible Christian chapels and mention is made of him in the collection too.

It is often forgotten that most of the Methodist chapels in Cornwall were funded over many years literally by the hard-earned pennies of miners, farm workers and fishermen - at one time there were over 900 in use. Miners going abroad would send money to their chapels and families too. 184 chapels are now listed buildings but year by year more are closing down and turning to other uses. Many of the first local village schools & some secondary schools or colleges were opened & run by the Methodist church, most of these were later taken over by the state in the early 1900s but some survived. The miners would often sing Charles Wesleys hymns below ground as did the bal maidens and workers on the surface, or on the way to the mines in their clogs, aprons and white buckram or straw hats. Services were sometimes held in the underground passageways, there were several miners who were much respected preachers. The charismatic Billy Bray was a miner & evangelical preacher, he literally built no less than three chapels, much by his own hands.

The museum is aiming to save as much as possible of Cornish Methodist churches and chapels and to tell the story of Methodism and its effect on the lives of the Cornish people and elsewhere in the world through missionary work and migration.

2016... Early Summer in 2016 saw old buildings at the mine being bulldozed, the gardens much improved and a volunteer group established. Volunteers commenced clearance of the woodland gardens and to restore machinery and buildings.

2016 ... December 2016 saw the museum being expanded to include a section on Tin & Copper called Techno Tin that encompasses telegraphy, telephony and telecommunications. During the year six large cabinets were presented by the Tank Museum at Bovington. Two large circular modern chandeliers arrived at the same time. These cabinets and lights came from Harrods in Knightsbridge London. The huge lanterns now illuminate the shop and ticket counter. A better and bigger book & rock shop was created along with a new entrance hallway and opened on December 3rd.

2017... In May the Book, Rock & Memento shop bookcases, counter, shelves and other fittings were presented to the museum by the National Trust from the Elgar Birthplace Museum in Worcestershire.

2017 ... In April no less than eight large state-of-the-art professional museum cabinets were presented to the mine museum by the National Museum of Wales. This enabled most of the old cabinets to be removed and the museum has been in the throes of being slowly re-organised since June. We hope to complete a more extensive museum ready for spring 2019. This will enable expansion into the present storage area which will add a further 70 feet of museum space.

In brief ....

The world-famous Poldark Mine and ancient tinning floors are a UNESCO World Heritage Inscription location. The grounds also contain a Bronze-Age Scheduled Ancient Monument to tin working - the only such monument in the South West.

The mine & tin dressing floors are celebrated for their unrivalled industrial history from the 13th century and for more recent links with the popular Poldark BBC television part fictional series of the 1970s. Scenes being filmed within the labyrinth of mine levels.

Winston Graham, author of the Poldark books, was a regular visitor here launching his final book at the mine in 2002 amid much celebration and media interest, it was he who re-named the ancient Huel Roots Mine as Poldark Mine over 40 years ago.

In 2014 the Mine was again used as the location for all of the underground sequences for a new BBC broadcasting of the Poldark series. A number of artifacts from the museum at Poldark Mine were used as props in the filming and can be seen by visitors. A bell used by the lead actor can be seen and rung.

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Address: Poldark Mine, Trenear, Wendron, Helston, Cornwall TR13 0ES UK      Call: 01326 573 173

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